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俄、沙爭奪歐洲市場 油價大戰一觸即發

沙烏地阿拉伯積極將原油賣到北歐煉油廠,踏入競爭對手俄國的後院,對業已因產量過剩而掙扎的油價構成新的壓力。

(Reuters) - A sales push by Saudi Arabia into north Europe's refineries, a step into rival Russia's backyard,piles fresh pressure on oil prices already struggling against oversupply.

俄國在巨大的中國大陸市場成功取代沙國的地位,讓沙國耿耿於懷,沙國因而對歐洲採取柔性攻勢,將12月油價砍到2009年金融危機爆發以來、全球各區域中的最低價。

Stung by Russia's success in supplanting it in the giant Chinese market, Riyadh has embarked on a charm offensive in Europe, cutting its prices for December by more than it has in any other region to their lowest since 2009 during the financial crisis.

沙國原油很少挺進地中海以北,這本是俄國、非洲與北海原油的地盤,所以,沙國成功將競爭對手俄國烏拉原油在波蘭和瑞典的買主吸引過去,對這片區域其他許多種原油市場造成巨大的連鎖效應。

Saudi Arabian barrels rarely venture north of the Mediterranean, into the home turf for Russian, African and North Sea crudes. As a result, the kingdom's success in luring away buyers of rival Russian Urals crude in Poland and Sweden is having an outsized knock-on impact on the market for a wide range of other crudes in the region.

今年春天,煉油業者面臨與目前情況相似的原油過剩,但靠著搶購較為便宜的原油,以滿足市場上對石油激增的需求,阻止了石油價格大跌。

Refiners averted a price drop from a similar build up of surplus oil in spring, snapping up cheaper crude to feed a surge in gasoline demand.

不過這回,煉製燃料也供過於求。原油產量過剩的同時,石油產品也過剩,石油產品過剩意味著煉油業者沒法擔任救星,吸收多餘的部分。

But this time there is a glut of refined fuel too. The crude surplus is matched by an overhang in oil products which means refineries will not be able to come to the rescue by absorbing the extra.

石油經紀商PVM執行長哈夫頓在研究報告中說:「看起來明年上半年對看好油價會大漲的人相當危險。」

"The first half of next year looks like a distinctly dangerous period for oil bulls," brokers PVM Chief Executive David Hufton said in a note.

「到時,原油庫存可能會達到頂點,導致價格崩盤。」

"It could be the period when tank tops are reached, leading to a price meltdown."

俄國船隻準備將鑽油平台拖到俄國北部的伯朝拉海。

俄國船隻準備將鑽油平台拖到俄國北部的伯朝拉海。


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說文解字看新聞

charm offensive是由charm(人的魅力、親和力)與offensive(攻勢)組成,意思是奉承、以甜言蜜語勸誘他人,或對他人友善,以贏得他人的好感。這個短語最早出現在1956年10月美國加州報紙「佛雷斯諾蜂共和報」,原句是[General Alfred M.] Gruenther warned, though, that after the "launching of the Russian charm offensive, there is a danger of the democracies relaxing their vigilance."(不過,葛倫特將軍警告,「在俄國發動柔性攻勢後,民主國家可能會放鬆戒備」。)

聯合報/李京倫、林新輝、楊政勳、劉宜峰 製作
圖/路透、美聯社

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